The original Alcorn County Courthouse was built in 1870 on this spot, shortly after Alcorn County was formed from the original Tishomingo County. After ten years, the original Courthouse was replaced with a two-story brick Courthouse, built in 1880 by architect Alfred Zucher. In 1917, this second courthouse was destroyed in a fire.
This third Courthouse was constructed in 1918 by architect N.W. Overstreet of Jackson, Mississippi. Overstreet is also responsible for the Pontotoc County Courthouse. The third and current Alcorn County Courthouse celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2018.
The Alcorn County Courthouse is built in the Neo-Classical style, made of brick and terra cotta masonry, with elements from the Prairie style. It is a three-story building with a full entablature underneath attic windows. Clock faces and busts of Blind Justice can be found at the corners. The main entrance contains Doric columns on Tuscan shafts and a two-tier monumental stair.